¿Fiestas patrias o fiesta neocolonial?

La ceremonia se llevó a cabo tal como se realizaban las grandes festividades coloniales, con la única diferencia que San Martín sustituyó al Virrey. Del Palacio Virreynal salió una enorme procesión en la que estaban los catedráticos de la universidad con sus tocas doctorales, los titulados de Castilla y los miembros de las órdenes militares con sus hábitos; al centro, iba San Martín flanqueado por el portaestandarte y el conde de San Isidro, seguidos por el Estado Mayor y los oficiales del ejército.

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San Martín y la independencia nacional del Perú

La independencia frustrada II

POR: CELSO VERA SUÁREZ

LICENCIADO EN EDUCACIÓN -CIENCIAS SOCIALES

Las ideas monárquicas de San Martín ya eran conocidas. Es en ese contexto que se produjo el encuentro para entrar a una negociación entre el Virrey La Serna y San Martín, el 2 de junio de 1821.

Allí, el Libertador propone establecer una regencia para gobernar el Perú, que la formaría La Serna, en calidad de Regente, y dos corregentes; uno, por el lado colonial, y otro por el lado independiente.

Esta regencia gobernaría el Perú, ejerciendo el mando supremo de las tropas de uno y otro lado, hasta que viniera un príncipe español que asumiera el trono. Tal era la idea de San Martín y que la puso en bandeja al Virrey.

Inexplicablemente, La Serna no acepta esta propuesta monarquizante y decide, con su camarilla, continuar la lucha para recuperar el poder absoluto para España; por lo que, decide abandonar Lima para dirigirse a la sierra central para reagrupar y fortalecer el ejército realista, dejando como gobernador de la ciudad a Pedro Zárate Navia y Bolaños -Marqués de Montemira – para que se encargara, junto con San Martín, de los preparativos para el acta de la firma y jura de la independencia.

Antes de abandonar Lima, La Serna pide a San Martín que impidiera que las guerrillas que se encontraban cerca se posesionaran de la capital; igual súplica le cursó los señorones de Lima, que se encontraban aterrados ante la idea de que las masas de indígenas y negros ingresaran a la ciudad. La repuesta de San Martín fue que retiraría a los montoneros si el cabildo criollo lo invitaba oficialmente ingresar a Lima y se comprometía, además, a que jurase la independencia. Así se convino. San Martín entró a la ciudad alojándose en el antiguo Palacio de los Virreyes.

Dando cumplimiento a lo convenido, San Martín se reunió con el Cabildo, las personalidades coloniales más notables, o sea, los titulados de Castilla; así mismo, con los que ostentaban hábitos de las órdenes de caballería real, los miembros del ultracolonialista Tribunal del Consulado, las cabezas de familias definidamente colonialistas y el Cabildo Eclesiástico.

Así, todo quedó preparado. Todos estos personajes, calificadamente colonialistas, se pronunciaron a favor de hace lo que San Martín les había pedido: redactar el Acta de la Independencia y firmarla. Al pueblo (indios, mestizos, negros, criollos pobres), que sí eran independentistas, se les negó participar en el acto. Se acordó que la Jura de la Independencia fuese realizada el 28 de julio de 1821.

La ceremonia se llevó a cabo tal como se realizaban las grandes festividades coloniales, con la única diferencia que San Martín sustituyó al Virrey. Del Palacio Virreynal salió una enorme procesión en la que estaban los catedráticos de la universidad con sus tocas doctorales, los titulados de Castilla y los miembros de las órdenes militares con sus hábitos; al centro, iba San Martín flanqueado por el portaestandarte y el conde de San Isidro, seguidos por el Estado Mayor y los oficiales del ejército.

La procesión iba escoltada por los alabarderos del rey, y cerraba el desfile un pelotón de húsares con sus vistosos uniformes. En la Plaza de Armas y otros lugares cercanos, se habían instalado tabladillos desde los cuales San Martín haría el acto de la proclama. Todo se realizó como lo planificaron San Martín, por un lado, y el Marqués y el Cabildo por el lado colonialista.

En las noches del 28 y 29 de julio se realizaron suntuosos bailes en los salones del Cabildo y el Palacio virreynal; en las calles hubo verbena general. Desde entonces se ha celebrado, en memoria de estas festividades de corte colonialista, lo que se ha acostumbrado en denominar, fariseicamente, el “Día de la Independencia”.

Hecho que se repite desde 1821 hasta la actualidad, con algunas particularidades, donde cada presidente, con su fajín al cinto, sale de palacio de gobierno acompañado de su séquito compuesto por ministros, militares, personajes notables y demás, para dirigirse luego al Congreso de la República donde se da lectura a un mensaje a la nación lleno de promesas y promesas incumplidas. Y así, año tras año. Y el pueblo espera y espera. ¿Hasta cuándo?

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